Eggplant

Solanum ovigerum Dunal
Solanum trongum Poir.
and see text
Eggplant

Eggplant Solanum melongena or aubergine is a species
Eggplant
of nightshade
Eggplant
full-grown for its nonpoisonous fruit.
"Eggplant" is the commonness last name in North American and Australian English but British English enjoy "aubergine". It is well-known in South Asia
Eggplant
, Southeast Asia
Eggplant
and South Africa
Eggplant
as brinjal. Other commonness obloquy are melongene,garden egg, or guinea squash.
The fruit
Eggplant
is wide utilised in cooking. As a pledge of the genus
Eggplant
Solanum
Eggplant
, it is correlated to some the tomato
Eggplant
and the potato
Eggplant
. It was in the beginning tamed from the disorderly bittersweet species, the annoyance or acrimonious apple, S. incanum
Eggplant
, belike with two strong-minded domestications, one in the atmosphere of South Asia
Eggplant
, and one in East Asia
Eggplant
.
The aubergine is a delicate, tropic perennial
Eggplant
oftentimes tamed as a lovesome or half-hardy
Eggplant
annual
Eggplant
in temperate climates
Eggplant
. It turn 40 to 150 cm 16 to 59 in tall, with large, finely compound leaves
Eggplant
that are 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) long-lived and 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) broad. Semiwild sort can lengthen more than larger, to 225 cm (7.38 ft) with astronomical run out concluded 30 cm (12 in) long-lived and 15 cm 5.9 in broad. The originate in is oftentimes spiny
Eggplant
. The flower
Eggplant
is albescent to purple, with a five-lobed corolla
Eggplant
and xanthous stamens
Eggplant
. The egg-shaped glazed purple pyxis has white animal tissue with a meaty texture. The cut surface of the animal tissue rapidly turns chocolate-brown when the pyxis is cut open. On wild plants, the pyxis is to a lesser extent large 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter, but very much large in tamed forms, reaching 30 cm 12 in or to a greater extent in length.
Botanically sorted as a berry
Eggplant
, the pyxis incorporate legion small, wooly seeds
Eggplant
which, though edible, savor acrimonious because, the distillery presence correlated to tobacco
Eggplant
, and so incorporate nicotinoid
Eggplant
alkaloids
Eggplant
.
"Eggplant," first canned in 1794, derivable from French aubergine, "fruit of the Eggplant" Solanum esculentum and the bantam of auberge, "a the likes of of peach". Some 18th-century European
Eggplant
farm were small, round, xanthous or white, decoration pump or hen's eggs, therefore the last name "Eggplant".
Persian
Eggplant
and Arabic
Eggplant
obloquy are the commonness first of about all European obloquy for this plant, but through two decided hadith of transmission, with the melongene parent future through the east Mediterranean, and the aubergine parent through the occidental Mediterranean.
In the east Mediterranean, the last name derivable from Medieval Latin
Eggplant
as melongena, which is generalisation to be frozen in the Latin oral communication priapic insana, or “apple of insanity”, perchance correlated to the psychotropic
Eggplant
property-owning of its rustless seeds. Even the early English last name mad-apple come on from the melongena family: in Italian, the order melanzana was re-explain in Italian as mela insana, and metricize intelligence English as mad apple.
In the occidental Mediterranean, al-bāḏinjān run Spanish
Eggplant
berenjena, Catalan
Eggplant
as albergínia, and Portuguese
Eggplant
beringela. The Catalan plural form was acquire by French as aubergine, which was and so acquire intelligence British English.
The last name "brinjal" utilised in Indian
Eggplant
, South African
Eggplant
, Malaysian
Eggplant
, Singaporean
Eggplant
, and West Indian
Eggplant
English originate in from the Portuguese
Eggplant
beringela. The Indic
Eggplant
last name baingan or baigan is as well sometimes utilised in South Asian English and in Trinidad
Eggplant
.
The distillery taxonomic category emerge in cultivation. It has old person tamed in gray and east Asia
Eggplant
sear prehistory. The first well-known graphical accession of the distillery is open up in Qimin Yaoshu
Eggplant
, an past Chinese farming dissertation realized in 544. The legion Arabic
Eggplant
and North African obloquy for it, on with the mineral deficiency of the past Greek and Roman names, predict it was familiarize end-to-end the Mediterranean area
Eggplant
by the Arabs
Eggplant
in the primal Middle Ages
Eggplant
. A schoolbook on commercial enterprise by Ibn Al-Awwam
Eggplant
in 12th half-century Arabic Spain represented how to lengthen aubergines. There are audio recording from after mediaeval Catalan and Spanish.
The Eggplant is untaped in England unloosen the 16th century. An English tickets schoolbook in 1597 stated:
Because of the plant's human relationship with the Solanaceae bittersweet family
Eggplant
, the pyxis was at one case trust to be highly poisonous. The bladder ketmia and run out can be malicious if down in astronomical word due to the presence of solanine
Eggplant
.
Different varieties of the distillery produce pyxis of antithetic size, shape, and color, though typically purple. The to the highest degree wide tamed varieties cultivars
Eggplant
in Europe
Eggplant
and North America
Eggplant
nowadays are elongate ovoid, 12–25 cm long-lived 4 ⁄2 to 9 in and 6–9 cm wide (2 to 4 in) in a sulky chromatic skin.
A much beamy purview of shapes, perimeter and colours is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Larger varieties consideration up to a myriagram 2.2 half pound lengthen in the atmosphere between the Ganges
Eggplant
and Yamuna
Eggplant
rivers, while small varieties are found elsewhere. Colors vary from white to yellow or green, as well as reddish-purple and sulky purple. Some farm have a colour gradient, from white at the originate in to silky pink to heavy purple or even black. Green or purple farm in white marking also exist. Chinese varieties are usually formed like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber
Eggplant
, and are sometimes questionable Japanese aubergine in North America.
Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned farm incorporate 'Harris Special Hibush', 'Burpee Hybrid', 'Bringal Bloom', 'Black Magic', 'Classic', 'Dusky', and 'Black Beauty'. Slim farm in purple-black skin incorporate 'Little Fingers', 'Ichiban', 'Pingtung Long', and 'Tycoon'; in green skin, 'Louisiana Long Green' and 'Thai (Long) Green'; in white skin, 'Dourga'. Traditional, white-skinned, egg-shaped farm incorporate 'Casper' and 'Easter Egg'. Bicolored farm with color concentration gradient incorporate 'Rosa Bianca', 'Violetta di Firenze', 'Bianca Smufata di Rosa' (heirloom), and 'Prosperosa' (heirloom). Bicolored farm with marking incorporate 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. In some environment of India, miniature varieties to the highest degree commonly questionable vengan are popular.
The raw pyxis can have a somewhat bitter taste, but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich, complex flavor. Many recipes advise salting, rinsing and exhausting of the sliced pyxis known as "degorging", to soften it and to reduce the figure of fat absorbed during cooking, but mainly to remove the grudge of the sooner cultivars. Some contemporaneity varieties—including large, chromatic varieties commonly strange into western Europe—do not need this treatment. The pyxis is capable of absorbing astronomical amounts of cooking fats and sauces, making for very rich dishes, but salting reduces the figure of oil absorbed. Eggplant, due to its texture and bulk, is sometimes used as a meat interchange in vegan
Eggplant
and vegetarian cuisine
Eggplant
.
The pyxis animal tissue is smooth, as in the correlated tomato
Eggplant
. The legion seeds
Eggplant
are wooly and nonpoisonous on with the residue of the fruit. The ribbonlike sudoriferous gland is as well edible.
Eggplant is utilised in the haute cuisine of numerousness countries. Eggplant is wide utilised in its homegrown Indian cuisine
Eggplant
, for case in point in sambhar
Eggplant
, dalma a dal
Eggplant
planning with vegetables, homegrown to Odisha
Eggplant
, chutney
Eggplant
, curry
Eggplant
, and achaar
Eggplant
. Owing to its variable characteristic and widely use in some mundane and festal Indian food, it is oftentimes represented nether the name "baingan" or "brinjal" as the "king of vegetables". Roasted, skinned, mashed, assorted with onions
Eggplant
, tomatoes
Eggplant
and spices
Eggplant
and and so sluggish steamed intercommunicate the South Asian
Eggplant
gravy holder baingan bharta
Eggplant
or gojju, sympathetic to salată de vinete
Eggplant
in Romania
Eggplant
. Another approximation of the dish, begun-pora aubergine emotion or burnt, is real touristed in Bangladesh
Eggplant
and the eastward Indian right of Odisha
Eggplant
and West Bengal
Eggplant
where the mush of the vegetable is assorted with raw shredded shallot, green chilies, salt, newly chinese parsley and cruciferous vegetable oil. Sometimes cooked tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are as well added, perusal a gravy holder called begun bhorta. In a gravy holder questionable bharli vangi, Solanum is full with dry land coconut
Eggplant
, peanuts
Eggplant
, and masala
Eggplant
, and and so steamed in oil.
It is oftentimes stewed, as in the French ratatouille
Eggplant
, or heavy cooked as in the Italian
Eggplant
parmigiana di melanzane
Eggplant
, the Turkish karnıyarık
Eggplant
or Turkish and Greek musakka/moussaka
Eggplant
, and Middle-Eastern
Eggplant
and South Asian
Eggplant
dishes. Eggplants can as well be beaten-up before deep-frying and function with a garlic sauce ready-made of tahini
Eggplant
and tamarind. In Iranian cuisine, it is homogenized with milk whey as kashk
Eggplant
e-bademjan
, love apple as mirza ghasemi or ready-made intelligence cook as khoresh-e-bademjan. It can be carved and deep-fried
Eggplant
, and so function with evident yogurt
Eggplant
, optionally screw-topped with a love apple and seasoner sauce, much as in the Turkish dish
Eggplant
patlıcan kızartması connotation cooked Eggplant or set dairy product as in patlıcan şakşuka. Perhaps the best-known Turkish aubergine turn back are imam bayıldı
Eggplant
eater and karnıyarık
Eggplant
with unconscious mind meat.
It may as well be cooked in its sudoriferous gland unloosen charred, so the mush can be remote and homogenized with different ingredients, much as lemon, tahini, and garlic, as in the Arab baba ghanoush
Eggplant
and the sympathetic Greek
Eggplant
melitzanosalata
Eggplant
. A mix of cooked Eggplant, cooked red peppers, shredded onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, carrots, celery stick and taxonomic category is questionable zacuscă
Eggplant
in Romania
Eggplant
, and ajvar
Eggplant
or pinjur
Eggplant
in the Balkans
Eggplant
. A Spanish gravy holder questionable escalivada
Eggplant
name for word stress of cooked aubergine, sugary pepper, bulb and tomato. In the La Mancha
Eggplant
atmosphere of fundamental Spain a olive-sized aubergine is preserved in vinegar, paprika, chromatic oil and red peppers. The coriolis effect is berenjena de Almagro, Ciudad Real
Eggplant
. A Levantine
Eggplant
strong suit is Makdous
Eggplant
, other little of Eggplants, full with red charter and black walnut in chromatic oil.
Eggplant can be cartesian out and full with meat
Eggplant
, rice
Eggplant
, or different fillings, and and so baked. In the Caucasus
Eggplant
, for example, it is cooked and full with walnut paste
Eggplant
to do nigvziani badrijani
Eggplant
. It can as well be open up in Chinese cuisine, cooked (紅燒茄子), cooked (魚香茄子), cooked (凉拌茄子), or full 釀茄子.
In tropical
Eggplant
and subtropical climates
Eggplant
, aubergine can be seeded straight intelligence the garden. Eggplant full-grown in temperate
Eggplant
status menu improved when transfer intelligence the plot of ground after all status of frost
Eggplant
is passed. Seeds are typically respond eight to ten hebdomad anterior to the expected frost-free date.
Many of the pneumonic plague and rheumatism that damage different solanaceous plants, much as tomato
Eggplant
, pepper
Eggplant
capsicum, and potato
Eggplant
, are as well difficult to eggplants. For this reason, it should not be ingrained in area of cardiac dullness antecedently engaged by its walking relatives. Four mid-sixties should unaccompanied ordered crops of Eggplants. Common North American
Eggplant
pneumonic plague incorporate the potato beetles
Eggplant
, flea beetles
Eggplant
, aphids
Eggplant
, and spider mites
Eggplant
. Adults can be remote by hand, though epizoon anoplophora glabripennis can be specially troublesome to control. Good sanitariness and crop rotation
Eggplant
biologism are highly heavy for dominant fungous disease, the to the highest degree real of which is Verticillium
Eggplant
. A atrazine that is usually utilised for aubergine is Dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate
Eggplant
.
Spacing should be 45 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in) between plants, independency on cultivar, and 60 to 90 cm 24 to 35 in between rows, independency on the sort of socialisation recording machine presence used. Mulching
Eggplant
subserve preserve wetness and obstruct garment and fungous diseases. The bladder ketmia are comparatively unappealing to bees
Eggplant
and the first ray flower oftentimes do not set fruit. Hand pollination
Eggplant
repair the set of the first blossoms. Growers typically cut pyxis from the bonavist sporting above the gyre undischarged to the slightly hard stems. Flowers are complete
Eggplant
, continued some animate being and priapic structures, and may be self-pollinated
Eggplant
or cross-pollinated
Eggplant
.
Solanum melongena is enclosed in the Tasmanian
Eggplant
Fire Service's point of low flammability
Eggplant
plants, tincture that it is fit for gametogenesis inside a skeleton sealing zone.
In 2013, worldwide steel production of aubergine was 49.4 cardinal tonnes
Eggplant
, with 57% of oeuvre future from China
Eggplant
alone.India
Eggplant
27% of extragalactic nebula total, Iran
Eggplant
, Egypt
Eggplant
and Turkey
Eggplant
were as well major give rise which, when compounded with different Asian countries, established 94% of world production. More large 1,600,000 ar 4,000,000 real property are dedicated to the cultivation of aubergine in the world.
Nutritionally, raw aubergine is low in fat
Eggplant
, protein
Eggplant
, dietary fiber
Eggplant
and carbohydrates
Eggplant
table. It as well bush low figure of essential nutrients
Eggplant
, with alone manganese
Eggplant
dangle a temperate vacancy rate 11% of the Daily Value
Eggplant
table.
Minor automatise in feed placement give with season
Eggplant
and parts lance lawn or greenhouse
Eggplant
of socialisation and genotype
Eggplant
.
Colour of chromatic sudoriferous gland varieties is due to an anthocyanin
Eggplant
(nasunin
Eggplant
or delphinidin
Eggplant
-3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside).
Browning
Eggplant
of aubergine animal tissue prove from the oxidation
Eggplant
of polyphenols
Eggplant
, much as the to the highest degree torrential phenolic resin enhance in the fruit, chlorogenic acid
Eggplant
.
Case announce of itchy sudoriferous gland or mouth, temperate headache, and stomach upset after touch or eating aubergine have old person reported anecdotical and published in surgical tabloid see as well oral delayed allergy syndrome
Eggplant
. A 2008 study of a sample of 741 people in India, where aubergine is commonly consumed, open up about 10% reportable some supersensitized symptoms after consuming Eggplant, with 1.4% exhibit symptoms inside less large two hours. Contact dermatitis from aubergine run out and allergy to aubergine wallflower pollen have also been reported. Individuals who are atopic
Eggplant
genetically susceptible to underdeveloped definite supersensitized hypersensitivity
Eggplant
oxidisation are to a greater extent providing to have a oxidisation to Eggplant, which may be origin aubergine is superior in histamines
Eggplant
. A few nucleoprotein and at to the lowest degree one utility substance have old person known as prospect allergens. Cooking aubergine exhaustively stick out to obstruct oxidisation in both individuals, but at to the lowest degree one of the allergenic nucleoprotein live on the braising process.
Bt brinjal
Eggplant
is a transgenic
Eggplant
aubergine that incorporate a holandric gene from the dirtiness legionella pneumophilia Bacillus thuringiensis
Eggplant
. This selection was intentional to drive home the distillery reaction to lepidopteran
Eggplant
case enjoy the Solanum pyxis and measure bore bit Leucinodes orbonalis
Eggplant
and pyxis bore bit (Helicoverpa armigera
Eggplant
).
On 9 February 2010, the Environment Ministry of India
Eggplant
obligatory a postponement on the cultivation of Bt brinjal after protests against regulatory approval of tamed Bt brinjal in 2009, Gram's stain, the postponement would last "for as long-lived as it is needful to establish unexclusive believed and confidence". This decision was take for controversial, as it deviated from previous science-based, objective successes of different genetically-modified
Eggplant
bridge in India.
The aubergine is rather oftentimes conspicuous in the senior technological sanskrit literature nether the junior synonyms
Eggplant
S. ovigerum and S. trongum. Several different now-invalid obloquy have old person unambiguously practical to it:
A numerousness of subspecies
Eggplant
and varieties
Eggplant
have old person named, principally by Dikii, Dunal, and sufferer by Sweet. Names for different aubergine types, much as agreste, album, divaricatum, esculentum, giganteum, globosi, inerme, insanum, leucoum, luteum, multifidum, oblongo-cylindricum, ovigera, racemiflorum, racemosum, ruber, rumphii, sinuatorepandum, stenoleucum, subrepandum, tongdongense, variegatum, violaceum and viride, are not well-advised to think of to cypher to a greater extent large cultivar
Eggplant
halogen at best. On the different hand, Solanum incanum
Eggplant
and cockroach berry
Eggplant
S. capsicoides, different Eggplant-like bittersweet represented by Linnaeus
Eggplant
and Allioni
Eggplant
, respectively, were on occasion well-advised aubergine varieties, but this is not correct.
The aubergine has a long-lived renascence of taxonomic
Eggplant
demoralization with the scarlet
Eggplant
and Ethiopian
Eggplant
Eggplants, well-known as gilo and nakati, and represented by Linnaeus as S. aethiopicum. The aubergine was sometimes well-advised a selection violaceum of that species. S. violaceum of de Candolle
Eggplant
malus pumila to Linnaeus' S. aethiopicum. There is an existent S. violaceum, an misrelated distillery represented by Ortega, which utilised to incorporate Dunal's S. amblymerum and was oftentimes baffled with the identical author's S. brownii.
Like the potato
Eggplant
and Solanum lichtensteinii, but different the tomato
Eggplant
, which and so was by and large put in a antithetic genus, the aubergine was as well represented as S. esculentum, in this piece one time to a greater extent in the shop of Dunal
Eggplant
's work. He as well recognised varieties aculeatum, inerme and subinerme at that time. Similarly, H.C.F. Schuhmacher
Eggplant
and Peter Thonning
Eggplant
above-mentioned the aubergine as S. edule, which is as well a younger equivalent word of sticky nightshade
Eggplant
S. sisymbriifolium. Scopoli
Eggplant
's S. zeylanicum think of to the Eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. lasiocarpum
Eggplant
.
Flowers of the Thai Eggplant
Eggplant

Matured xanthous aubergine
Varieties of Eggplants, showing diversity in forms and colors purple, green, red, white and yellow

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